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From: Subject: A System Security Policy for You Date: Wed, 18 Jul 2001 16:27:20 +0100 MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_001E_01C10FA6.8491A5D0"; type="text/html" X-MimeOLE: Produced By Microsoft MimeOLE V5.00.2919.6600 This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_001E_01C10FA6.8491A5D0 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Location: http://www.sans.org/infosecFAQ/policy/sys_sec.htm A System Security Policy for You

A System = Security Policy for=20 You
David Milford
April 25, 2001

1. Introduction

1.1 Purpose

The = purpose of=20 this document is to meet the requirements of the GIAC Security = Essentials assignment and to provide other interested parties = with a=20 reference document that they can use to get their System = Security=20 Policy (SSP) document=20 started.

1.2 Introduction

The first thing the auditor = asks is=20 "Please provide me with a copy of your System Security = Policies and=20 Security Operating Procedures". Then it starts "we = haven’t got round=20 to that yet" or "we have them but they are only at draft" or = "we don’t=20 have a policy just some notes on guidance" or "we tried to put = one=20 together but the person left the company before the task was=20 completed" or " we have them but they have not been = implemented yet",=20 well there are any number of excuses for not having or not=20 implementing a System Security Policy and the associated = security=20 operating procedures.

If you have no security policy = why are you=20 applying security measures and what are you applying them to? = Why do=20 auditors ask for a written policy? Why do the International = Standards=20 Organisation (ISO), the Orange Book (US DoD) and the = Communication=20 Electronic Steering Group (UK Government organisation) all = stress the=20 need for a written security policy.

Simply this, if you do not have = a written=20 and approved SSP then how do you apply the correct security = measures=20 to an IT System or network in a consistent and auditable = manner? How=20 do you know what measures have to be implemented? How do you = define=20 and delegate responsibilities? Where is your authority for=20 implementing security measures that may constrain how people = interact=20 with the system and network?

The System Security Policy is = the basis for=20 the legitimate application of security measures designed to = protect=20 your network from both internal and external threats. Without = the=20 definition provided by the policy document there is a very = good chance=20 that a security measure that should be implemented will be = missed or=20 you will implement measures that are not required, expensive = and the=20 cost can outweigh the benefit. Considering that for most = companies=20 Security is considered a bottom line cost, this is to be = avoided.=20

There is a saying that the job = isn’t=20 finished till the paperwork is complete. With IT security it = should be=20 reversed to say "don’t start the job until the paperwork = is to hand".=20

2. Types of=20 Policy

2.1 Where to=20 begin

The hardest part about a System = Security=20 Policy (SSP) is getting started. There are many security = companies=20 that either offer to write the policy for you or train you to = do it=20 yourself. The following Internet sites provide excellent = information=20 about creating a policy document and what should go into it, = but as=20 businesses are less forthcoming about providing example = policies and=20 this is understandable as providing this service is how they = make=20 their money. If at this stage in the document you would like = to get a=20 better understanding of what is required to complete a = security policy=20 document then try out the following=20 sites:

  • http://www.iss.net/customer_care/resource_center/whitepapers=20
  • http://www.information-security-policies-and-standards.com/weblin= ks.htm=20
  • http://www.pentasafe.com/=20
  • http://www.sun.com/software/white-papers/wp-security-devsecpolic= y=20

There are some government = organisations=20 that publish their own SSP. These are also an excellent source = of=20 information but remember the policy has been formatted and = designed to=20 meet their requirements and what they consider is the threat = to their=20 network or system.

  • http://csrc.nist.gov/se= cplcy/doc-man.txt=20 US Dept of Commerce=20
  • http://csrc.nist.gov/= policies/welcome.html=20 U.S.=20 Customs AIS Security Policy Manual=20
  • http= ://info.internet.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc/files/rfc2196.txt=20

If you are interested in seeing = how the US=20 DoD deals with securing IT systems then the site URL below = sets out=20 the requirements for establishing a trusted computer system = evaluation=20 criteria (TCSEC). In the context of this document and for most = commercial organisations the criteria detailed in TCSEC are = too=20 onerous, however for financial institutions and where the care = of=20 other peoples money is a priority the principles laid down in = TCSEC=20 are relevant.


2.2 ISO=20 17799

ISO 17799 is the International = Standards=20 Organisations detailed security standard and is organised into = 10=20 major sections, it was derived from British Standard BS7799 = and is=20 designed for implementation by companies in the commercial = sector. It=20 is one of the most widely recognised security standards and is = comprehensive in its coverage of security issues. However = compliance=20 with ISO 17799 is far from trivial and is a difficult task = even for=20 the most security conscious organisation, it requires = commitment from=20 the top, CEO level, and the money to fund the effort. This URL = will=20 take you to ISO information=20 http://www.riskserver.co.uk/iso17799/

After looking at all the = available=20 information on putting an SSP together it seems a daunting = task. Often=20 just the thought of having to put everything down on paper = brings the=20 whole idea to a halt. Having looked at and used various = sources of=20 information from BS7799, Communications Electronic Security = Group=20 (CESG), a UK Government organisation, DERA the UK Defence = Research=20 Agency, the Royal Airforce (RAF), the Orange book and other = commercial=20 organisations. The following is a suggested SSP format that = can be=20 tackled as you would eat an Elephant, one bite at a time. The=20 following format allows you to address each area into small = logical=20 steps. The assumption made is that you know your system, it = has been=20 baselined and a risk assessment has been carried out. This = ensures=20 that the security measures to be implemented as part of the = policy are=20 pertinent to your system.

In the next section a suggested = format for=20 an SSP is detailed.

3. The = System Security=20 Policy

3.1 Basic = Facts

The following details need = to be in=20 this section

  • Name of = System/Project=20
  • Location of System=20
  • Key Target dates (if = required)=20

3.2 Security=20 Responsibilities

Unless responsibilities are = defined there=20 is a tendency for staff to claim that as nothing was written = down it=20 was not their = responsibility.

  • System Manager/Project = Manager=20 (originator of SSP)=20
  • Prime Contractor (if = relevant)=20
  • System Administrator=20
  • System Security=20 Officer/Administrator=20
  • Database = Administrator=20

3.3 Status of=20 Document

Just good housekeeping and = configuration=20 control.

  • Version Number=20
  • Superseded documents=20

3.4 System=20 Description

This section is designed to = enable the=20 Project Manager or System administrator to define exactly what = they=20 are looking after and for any third party to be able to = quickly=20 understand their = responsibilities.

  • Role of system. The role of = the system=20 in terms of data processing, data storage and communications = as=20 follows:
    • Type of information to be = held on the=20 system and output from system=20
    • Types of user = (administration, normal=20 user, print controller etc)=20
    • Number of users=20
    • Classification of data = (Finance Only,=20 HR Only, Project Eyes Only, if required)=20
    • Quantity of data = (Nbytes)=20
  • System Configuration. A = description of=20 the working elements of the system that carry out specific=20 tasks.
    • Number of terminals =
    • Number of control = consoles=20
    • Number and types of = terminals=20 (intelligent, dumb, print etc)=20
    • Media loading = arrangements=20
    • Software (OS and version=20 number)=20
    • Interconnections (LAN and = WAN)=20

3.5 Security=20 Requirements and Measures

This section consists of a = statement of the=20 security requirements to be met and the measures needed to = achieve=20 them. This should be agreed with a higher authority usually = referred=20 to as an Accreditor, and should be broken down as=20 follows:

  • Threats to confidentiality, = integrity=20 and availability of data. The nature and resources of = possible=20 attackers and the attractiveness of the system and data as a = target.=20
  • What will the impact be if = the data is=20 accidentally disclosed. =

3.6 Security=20 Domains

This is a key element of this = policy=20 document, by defining the security domains for the system it = is=20 possible to break down the policy into manageable pieces that = can be=20 completed domain by domain until the document is fit for = purpose. For=20 this type policy there are three domains, Global Security = Environment=20 (GSE), Local Security Environment (LSE) and the Electronic = Security=20 Environment (ESE).

They are defined as=20 follows:

  • GSE is the area in which the = system is=20 located in which the security relevant factors are defined = that are=20 considered to be outside of the control of the project=20 manager/system administrator. E.g. control of access to the = building=20 which is usually the responsibility of the security company = or=20 facilities manager.=20
  • LSE this consists of the = security=20 environment under the control of the project/system manager = and the=20 security boundaries with the GSE.=20
  • ESE deals with the security = aspects of=20 the system and its interfaces with the LSE and GSE.=20

By using domains to break down = each section=20 of the policy to be worked on it will be easier to put = together in=20 small logic steps that follow a consistent pattern throughout = the=20 document. It will also ensure that by following this pattern = defence=20 in depth is achieved.

3.7 Definition of=20 Security Measures

In this section of the security = policy the=20 measures to be taken to achieve security should be described. = The list=20 below is not necessarily comprehensive and others maybe = required to=20 meet specific system security requirements. As a minimum the = following=20 headings are recommended:

  • Identification and = Authentication -=20 establishment of a claimed identity=20
  • Access Control - the control = and=20 authorisation of access to information by a user=20
  • Integrity – prevention = of unauthorised=20 amendment or deletion of information=20
  • Accounting - the recording = of an account=20 holder’s security related actions=20
  • Audit - the monitoring of = security=20 related events=20
  • Reliability of Service - the = preservation of availability=20
  • Data Exchange - the = protection of=20 inter-communication.=20
  • Non-repudiation - to render = an event=20 undeniable

In order to ensure consistency = throughout=20 the document each section dealing with the security measures = should=20 start with the following = headings:

  • Definition of the = Term=20
  • Security principle to be = upheld=20
  • General security risks to be = countered
    • If required specific = examples of risks=20 that need to be considered can be detailed =
  • Assertions – an = explicit statement in a=20 SSP that security measures in one domain constitute and = adequate=20 basis for security measures in another.=20

4. Example using=20 Domains

In order to show how the use = of domains=20 and security measures are put together in small logical steps to = build=20 up to a complete policy, the following is how a single section = of the=20 document "Access Control" would be put=20 together.

4.2 Access/Access=20 Control

4.3 Definition

      Access is = defined as the=20 condition where the potential exists for information to flow = between=20 entities. Access Control is control over the flow of = information=20 between entities.

4.4 Security=20 Principle

      Access to = business sensitive=20 information should be limited to persons with the appropriate = rights=20 and need to know.

4.5 Security=20 Risk

      Individuals, = without the=20 correct clearance or need-to-know, may intentionally or = accidentally=20 gain unauthorized access to business sensitive information. = Business=20 sensitive information may be sent to destinations not = authorised to=20 receive it.

4.6 Assertions

Access to the GSE is under the = control of=20 the local Security Guard and reception=20 staff.

Users protect all business = sensitive=20 information passed from the systems to the GSE in accordance = with its=20 classification.

Access to system hardware is = restricted to=20 those authorized to do so.

All unescorted individuals = within the LSE=20 are known and trusted by The Company.

SyOPs specify the procedures = associated=20 with managing user access rights, and define procedures for=20 :

  • identification, marking, = recording and=20 handling and storage of magnetic media=20
  • handling of system hard copy = outputs=20
  • disposal and repair of = faulty or surplus=20 equipment containing memory. =

System Administration staffs = are=20 responsible for maintaining systems security, using permitted=20 administrative functions.

The System Administration staff = functions=20 are identified by roles and associated permissions. Such roles = control=20 access to, and use of, the systems Administration functions. = These=20 controls are restricted to what is authorized and necessary = for the=20 performance of their tasks. The roles=20 include:

  • Network System = Manager=20
  • System Administrators =
  • Site Support=20
  • System Security = Officer=20
  • Audit Administrator (The = role of the=20 Audit Administrator is carried out by the Security=20 Administrator).

4.7 GSE=20 Measures

Reception staff or Security = Guards shall=20 control access by personnel to buildings in which a system is=20 installed. Physical security of sites is the responsibility of = The=20 Company.

Workstations, printers, = graphical scanners=20 and optical device readers shall be placed in office space = within the=20 GSE.

Automatic virus detection shall = be=20 installed on server to ensure any magnetic media intended to = hold or=20 holding User data is virus checked.

The Security Guards shall = ensure that=20 offices are left secure at the end of the working day and all = desks=20 are cleared, where = possible.

4.8 LSE=20 Measures

Servers, routers, Firewalls and = where=20 possible control consoles shall be accommodated in the secure = computer=20 room. Access to the computer room shall be limited to = authorized=20 personnel and shall be re-verified on a periodic = basis.

SyOPs shall define user = responsibilities=20 with regard to use of the systems. Users shall not be admitted = to the=20 systems until they have been adequately trained in the use of = the=20 system and security features.

System Administration staff = shall ensure=20 that administrative functions are not made available to normal = users.

Access to the Configuration = Management (CM)=20 system and its data shall only be allowed to personnel = authorized to=20 carry out CM tasks.

User permissions shall be set = up and=20 maintained as per the site specific security = procedures.

Removable classified material = shall be=20 secured in lockable containers, when not in use.

SyOPs shall define procedures=20 for:

  • access control, recording, = supervision=20 and escorting of personnel in the Computer Room=20
  • control of Protectively = Marked=20 material=20
  • recording of actions = undertaken by=20 System Administration personnel.=20

Magnetic Media and Paper = Output: Access=20 to systems magnetic media shall be restricted to authorized = staff. The=20 following shall be = marked:

  • Magnetic media for the = storage of system=20 and archived user data=20
  • Systems hard copy outputs = shall be=20 marked and handled as for the highest data protective = marking for=20 the systems or server, unless the owner of the data can = assert that=20 it should be of a lower data protective marking.=20

4.9 ESE=20 = Measures

The user profile shall define = the set of=20 facilities each user is authorized to access. The systems = shall=20 constrain the profile by password mediation to only those = facilities=20 that the User is authorized to use.

The System Administration = facilities=20 shall be:

  • issuing initial = passwords=20
  • maintenance of user and = role=20 accounts=20
  • maintenance of hardware=20 accounts=20
  • Domain management = (controlled at=20 corporate level)=20
  • management of system = addresses=20
  • setting password = expiration=20 period=20
  • management of = groups=20
  • creation and distribution = of new=20 software packages=20
  • update site or system = inventory=20
  • perform back-up and = restore=20
  • configuration of = workstation or=20 server=20
  • unlock workstation=20
  • set system time=20
  • management of print = resources=20
  • close down and start-up of = system=20
  • monitor system = performance=20
  • perform diagnostic = routines=20
  • check software = integrity=20
  • examine and analyze the = accounting=20 logs=20
  • maintain accounting = filters=20
  • administer audit = alarms=20
  • allow the operator to = archive and=20 delete an accounting log.=20

The Security Administration = facilities=20 shall be:

  • Audit User accounts =
  • Audit security logs =
  • Audit of password = logs=20
  • Audit of Administrative=20 accounts =

All users shall have = automatic virus=20 detection software installed on their workstations and/or=20 Laptops.

4.10 Configuration of Electronic=20 Mail

E-mail shall be provided = internally for=20 all users of the systems as requested. User responsibilities = shall=20 be as stated in SyOPs.

All Email shall be virus=20 checked.

4.11 Remote Access=20 Control

Only the Company systems = staff,=20 authorized by the System Manager shall be permitted remote = access to=20 the systems.

The SecurID security = application shall be=20 implemented on the network to ensure secure User = authentication for=20 remote access. No other forms of remote access shall be = permitted.=20 The application shall maintain an encrypted list of = authorized=20 users, their passwords and profiles for identification and=20 authentication before access is permitted.

Remote access shall be = implemented by the=20 use of a Remote Access Server with integral auto switching, = a=20 security application and systems=20 Interface.

4.12 Internet Access & Firewall=20 = Configuration

Firewalls shall be employed = to ensure=20 data are only accessed by individuals with a need to know, = and with=20 the correct access privileges.

All Firewalls shall implement = a Default=20 Deny security strategy. That is a strategy that states "that = which=20 is not expressly permitted is denied". The Firewall security = policy=20 is maintained as a separate document.

Where deemed necessary, an = encrypted VPN=20 shall be implemented using a minimum of 56bit, and where = possible=20 128bit encryption, for secure communication over the=20 Internet.

In order to facilitate = changes in client=20 access requirements to shared resources, the System Manager, = on the=20 authority of the Security Manager, shall be able to permit = access to=20 the systems via the Firewall without the requirement to = re-submit=20 this document to the Accreditation Authority. This = interconnection=20 shall be subject to the provisions of a Partner to Partner=20 Interconnection = Policy.

4.13 Putting it=20 all Together

Once you have completed = Access control it=20 is a simple matter of selecting another Security Measure = from the=20 list and applying exactly the same process as you have = above. Add=20 them all together with the detail as outlined in paragraphs = 3.1 to=20 3.4 and you will have your SSP and be ready to move on to = the=20 Security Operating=20 Procedures.

5. Security Operating=20 Procedures (SyOPs)

5.1 Where = SyOPs fit=20 in

The role of Security = Operating=20 Procedures (SyOPs) is to look downwards to those who must = enforce the=20 SSP. SyOPs are the means by which the System or Project = Manager can=20 ensure that the responsibilities he/she has accepted are = actually=20 carried out in the day to day operation of the = system.

Once again it is not the = intention to=20 include a complete document but as an example and to show that = SyOPs=20 are directly related to the SSP, the following is the section = within=20 the SyOPs dealing with Access Control for an NT based=20 system:

5.2 Access = Authorization

      The LAN=20 Team leader and LAN Team Administrators shall have the ability = to=20 restrict access to information to those Users/groups who have = a=20 need-to-know. All maintenance engineers and visitors must be = in=20 receipt of a valid visitor’s security = pass.

5.3 System Access - Authorized=20 Users

All = Users shall=20 be authorized, by the LAN Team Administrators to access the = system via=20 a unique account and password.

The LAN Team Administrators = shall maintain=20 a list of Authorized Users=20 including:

  • Full name of the = Authorized=20 User=20
  • Name of = Group/Office/Department=20 etc=20
  • Authorized Userid allocated = for The=20 Company=20
  • Renewal date for access=20 permissions.

Authorized Users=20 shall be retired from the list by the LAN Team Administrators = under=20 the following = circumstances:

  • Upon expiration of their = authorization=20
  • When advised by the Line = Manager=20
  • When advised by Human = Resources=20
  • Upon termination of = employment or=20 contract.

5.4 New User Account = Creation

This = process shall be=20 carried out as documented in the local site IT Operations=20 Handbook.

5.5 Rights and Permission=20 Approval

      Special = rights,=20 permissions and privileges are granted to those whose job = function=20 requires it and are to be monitored and controlled on an = ongoing=20 basis. A formal request shall be submitted using a Company = Request=20 form and signed by an authorized submitter stating = justification for=20 all escalation of rights, permissions and privileges.=20

5.6 User Account Properties=20 Options

User Must Change Password at = Next=20 Logon
Default = = OFF

After a new = user account=20 is automatically generated by the system and the appropriate = request=20 has been approved (see section titled "Joining the THE = COMPANY_MASTER=20 Windows NT Domain in the Windows NT Policies and Procedure = document),=20 an initial password will be automatically generated using a = random=20 generator for each account. This option is initially turned on = and=20 forces the user to change the initial password and avert any=20 unauthorized logons with the randomly generated password. = After this=20 initial required reset, the option is turned off = automatically.=20

User Cannot Change = Password
Default=20 = OFF

Account Disabled
Default = ==20 Off

This option = is turned off=20 by default except in cases of misconduct, suspicion of a = breach in=20 security or simply because a user goes on vacation or on = temporary=20 leave. User accounts may also be disabled if the activity = status of=20 the account shows that it has been inactive for 30 days or = more. The=20 ON setting prevents anyone, other than an administrator or = account=20 operator, from accessing the user=20 account.

Account Locked = Out
Default ==20 Off

This option = appears if an=20 account locks because there were too many failed logon = attempts. This=20 last option is an indication that someone has attempted to = break into=20 an account unless the user simply forgot the password. Only a = domain=20 administrator can remove the = lock.

Logon To: Here = you specify=20 the names of the computers that the user can log on to. This = is an=20 important security feature, because it forces users to log on = to=20 systems where their activities can be physically monitored. It = also=20 prevents hackers from logging on to an account from their base = of=20 operation, which might be outside your company. The Company = will not=20 limit the machines a user can log onto except in situations = where the=20 limitation is warranted. Each user and manager will be = notified in=20 advance if such a situation becomes necessary.

One user=20 account for each member of staff: The Company = standard is=20 that each member of staff should only have one user account. = The=20 exception is for Administrators and other power users who are = allowed=20 to have two accounts, one for everyday tasks and another for=20 administrative = functions.

5.7 Locked User = Accounts

The = LAN Team=20 Administrators shall investigate all occurrences of locked = accounts.=20 The LAN Team Administrators or designee, who shall ensure the = correct,=20 User-id is being input, shall assist users with failed = log-ins. If the=20 User again fails to log-in a password change shall be=20 initiated.

The LAN = Team=20 Administrators under the authority of the LAN Team Leader = shall=20 proactively lock accounts for administrative and/or security=20 reasons.

5.8 Password = Standard

      Alpha, numeric with at least = one=20 capital

Maximum Password Age - 45=20 days

This is the = period of=20 time that a user is allowed to use a password before Windows = NT=20 requires that the user change the password. The Company = require that=20 you set this value to = 45.

Minimum Password Age - 1=20 day

This = setting can be used=20 to prevent a user from immediately reverting back to a = previous=20 password after a change. It specifies how long a user must = wait after=20 changing a password before the user can change it again. The = Company=20 require that this value be set to=20 1.

Minimum Password Length - 8 Alphanumeric=20 characters

This is a = critical=20 setting for security reasons. If users create short passwords, = a=20 cracker is more likely to discover a password. The Company = require=20 that this value is set to = 8.

Password Uniqueness -=20 10

This option = can prevent=20 users from toggling among their favorite passwords and reduces = the=20 chances that a hacker/password breach attempt will discover=20 passwords.

NOTE: Because = of the way=20 passwords are saved in a table, users cannot reuse a password = until=20 they have changed passwords n+2 times, where n is the = number of=20 passwords remembered. So if Password Uniqueness is set to 10, = users=20 cannot revert to the first password until they have changed = their=20 passwords twelve times = (10+2).

Account Lockout - after x bad logon = attempts ==20 5

The Account = lockout=20 feature is implemented to prevent brute force password=20 cracking/guessing attacks on the system. Each failure will then appear in the = Security Event=20 Log, which can be viewed with the Event Viewer. The account = that is=20 attempting log on and the machine where the logons are = occurring are=20 listed in the log file. When enabled, the Account Lockout = option in=20 the Account Policy dialog box allows the following=20 options:

Users must log on in order to = change=20 password = Yes

This option = prevents=20 users from changing their passwords if the passwords expire. = They will=20 not be able to log on and will need to call an administrator = to have=20 their password = changed.

5.9 System = Passwords

Any = standard=20 passwords supplied with System e.g. SYSTEM, MASTER, GUEST etc. = shall=20 be changed before the System is accessible to unprivileged = Authorized=20 Users.

All = System passwords=20 shall be treated as confidential and protected accordingly. It = is the=20 responsibility of the User to ensure his/her password is = secure at all=20 times. The password shall not be written down, except the copy = written=20 down and held securely by the Security = Administrator.

If a = User feels his=20 password has been compromised in any way then action shall be = taken=20 immediately to change the password. Under no circumstances = shall a=20 User allow others to use his/her User-id and = password.

Passwords that allow=20 access to System administration facilities shall be written = down and=20 held securely by the Security Administrator.

The = Security=20 Administrator and LAN Team Leader have overall responsibility = for the=20 policing of User-id's and passwords and for maintaining a = record of=20 all Users.

The = initial User-id=20 and password is allocated by the Windows NT Administrator or = designee,=20 when first used the System shall prompt for a password=20 change.

The = Windows NT=20 Administrator or designee shall reinstate a locked out = Authorized User=20 only when satisfied that an attempt to breach the security = policy has=20 not taken place.

NOTE: Manually = adding new=20 user accounts to the Windows NT security database on THE=20 COMPANY_MASTER is strictly prohibited without specific = approval from=20 Server Engineering Manager.

Authorized User-id shall be = considered for=20 retirement if the authorized Users have not logged on for a = period of=20 two months.

Once = authorized the=20 LAN Team Administrators shall assign privileges associated = with the=20 User role for all Users prior to there having access to the = system. If=20 a User-id is no longer required the LAN Team Administrators = shall be=20 informed, and shall then initiate removal of that User-id from = the=20 system.

Only authorized LAN Team = administration=20 personnel shall have access to the OS. The Operating System = shall be=20 backed up and periodically compared to the live version, = anomalies=20 shall be investigated by the Company Security Manager in = conjunction=20 with the LAN Team Leader and fully documented for audit=20 purposes.

The Administrator account is a = built-in=20 account that is installed when a Windows NT system is set up. = In a=20 domain environment, the Administrator account is set up = simultaneously=20 with the primary domain controller in the domain. The person = setting=20 up the system specifies the initial password for the = Administrator=20 account.

The Administrator account can = never be=20 disabled or deleted. This safeguard ensures that the = Administrator can=20 never be locked out of the system, thus allowing for a total = denial of=20 service assault. You cannot even set lockout features for the = account=20 to prevent someone from trying multiple passwords in an = attempt to=20 illegally access the account.

Because of the security risk to = the=20 Administrator account, every possible precaution shall be = taken to=20 ensure the account’s security. Select individuals are to = be assigned=20 individual accounts with essentially the same permissions but = without=20 the no-lockout feature built into the Administrator=20 account.

The original Administrators = account is not=20 to be used except in emergency situations such as a denial of = service=20 attack whereby all other administrative accounts are disabled, = locked=20 out or deleted. The account will be renamed and given an = alphanumeric=20 password. Copies of this password will be held securely by the = Security Administrator. =

6. Summary

After having looked at and = modified=20 various methods of putting an SSP together I consider that the = use of=20 Domains to breakdown the structure of the document into = manageable=20 sections makes the production and implementation of a reasonable = and=20 effective security policy an achievable task.

The sections included at = paragraph 3.7.1 are=20 by no means exhaustive but if completed diligently will ensure = that the=20 requirements of Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability are=20 achieved.

The format of the SSP as = presented can be=20 expanded or reduced depending on the assessed security measures = required=20 for an individual system. The SANS organisation has a number of=20 excellent policy examples and the policy content as outline by = Michele=20 Crabb-Guel is excellent for ensuring that all areas that need to = be in a=20 policy are given due consideration. These can be found at=20 = http://www.sans.org/newlook/resources/policies/policies.htm

Security is a bottom line expense = and this=20 should always be borne in mind. Businesses need to be convinced = of the=20 need to pay for security and often regard security more as a = hindrance=20 than help in supporting or providing services to their users and = customers. For a more flexible approach to implementing an SSP I = have=20 therefore borrowed the term "Adaptive" used by the company = Internet=20 Security Services at:

ht= tp://www.iss.net/customer_care/resource_center/whitepapers/

The term "Adaptive" is used to = ensure that=20 the SSP is flexible and ensures that the business is not a = prisoner to a=20 Security Policy that is set in concrete. By allowing and = documenting=20 exceptions to a policy it is possible to meet the requirements = of=20 business and at the same time maintain the security stance = required by=20 the CEO’s policy direction.

It is therefore recommended that=20 consideration is given to adding an "Exceptions Policy" in which = any=20 variation to the security measures detailed in the SSP can be = assessed=20 for risk, which is then written down. Based on the risk = assessment the=20 exception to policy can be approved by the Accreditor or if the = risk it=20 too great but the service is still required additional security = measures=20 can be implemented. This action is then documented as part of = the=20 Exception Policy and held with the = SSP.

7. References and Cited=20 Sources

CESG = Electronic Information=20 Systems (Infosec) Memorandum No 5: System Security Policies, = Issue 3.0,=20 July 1994 Unclassified

CESG Computer = Security=20 Memorandum No 1 – Glossary of Computer Security Terms, = Issue 2.2,=20 November 1993

AP 3086 – = RAF Manual of=20 Security 5th Edition

Department of = Defense Trusted=20 Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC) also referred to as = the=20 "Orange Book"

Internet Security = Systems (ISS)=20 Creating, Implementing and Managing the Information Security=20 Lifecycle

Principles and = Practice of=20 Computer Security, Admiral Management Services Ltd

Manual of Army = Security Vol 4 –=20 Information Technology Security dated 1991.

Site Security = Handbook RFC 1244=20 dated July 1991.

ht= tp://www.iss.net/customer_care/resource_center/whitepapers/

http://www.information-security-policies-and-standards.com/weblin= ks.htm


http://csrc.nist.gov/se= cplcy/doc-man.txt=20 US Dept of Commerce

http://csrc.nist.gov/= policies/welcome.html=20 U.S.=20 Customs AIS Security Policy Manual

http= ://info.internet.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc/files/rfc2196.txt

www.= sans.org/newlook/resources/policies/policies.htm



to top of page |=20 to = Security=20 Policy Issues | to = Reading=20 Room Home


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